3. MATERIALS FOR SOLID-STATE LASERS

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top Nd:YAG To Inquiry
Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:Y3Al5O12 or Nd:YAG) laser material is the most widely used solid-state laser material nowadays.
We provide high quality Nd:YAG with different dimensions and specifications for the use in industrial, medical and scientific applications. Nd:YAG is grown utilizing Czochralsky technique.

MAIN PROPERTIES:

Chemical formula Nd3+:Y3Al5O12
Crystal structure cubic
Nd dopant concentration, at.% 0.7 - 1.1
Lattice constant, Å 12.01
Density, g/cm3 4.56
Mohs hardness 8.5
Thermal expansion coefficient 7.8 x 10-6 x K-1, <111>
Thermal conductivity at 25C, W x cm-1 x K-1 0.14
Loss coefficient at 1064 nm, cm-1 0.003
Refractive index, at 1 µm 1.82
Lasing wavelength, nm 1064.0
Pump wavelength, nm 807.5
Absorption band at pump wavelength, nm 1

Rods with round cross-sections are manufactured:
Orientation <111> direction
Diameter, mm (4 ÷ 8) ± 0.025
Length, mm up to 130 ± 0.5
Flatness < λ/10
Parallelism, arc sec < 10
Perpendicularity, arc min < 5
Roughness, scratch/dig 10 - 5

Rod end faces are anti-reflection coated for high power laser operations. Reflectivity at 1064 nm is < 0.2% per surface. Total reflective or partial reflective coatings are available at request.

top Er:YAG To Inquiry
MAIN PROPERTIES:
Chemical formula Er3+:Y3Al5O12
Crystal structure cubic
Er dopant concentration, at.% 50
Density, g/cm3 4.56
Mohs hardness 8.5
Orientation <111> crystallographic direction (5)
Refractive index 1.837
Thermal conductivity, W x cm-1 x K-1 0.12
Lasing transition 4I11/24I13/2
Emission wavelength, µm 2.94
Stimulated emission cross-section, cm2 3.0 x 10-20
We offer Er:YAG laser rods up to 7 mm in diameter and 120 mm long. Other dimensions are available at request.

top Yb:YAG To Inquiry
Ytterbium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Yb:Y3Al5O12 or Yb:YAG) is one of the most promising laser-active materials and more suitable for diode-pumping than the traditional Nd-doped crystals. It can be pumped at 0.94 m and generates 1.03 m laser output. Compared with the commonly used Nd:YAG crystal, Yb:YAG crystal has a larger absorption bandwidth in order to reduce thermal management requirements for diode lasers, a longer upper-state lifetime, three to four times lower thermal loading per unit pump power. Yb:YAG crystal is expected to replace Nd:YAG crystal for high power diode-pumped lasers and other potential applications.

ADVANTAGES:

  • Very low fractional heating, less than 11%
  • Very high slope efficiency, up to 72%
  • Broad absorption bands, about 10 nm, λ = 940 nm
  • No excited-state absorption or up-conversion
  • Conveniently pumped by reliable InGaAs diodes at 940 nm (or 970 nm)
  • High thermal conductivity and strength

MAIN PROPERTIES:

Chemical formula Yb3+:Y3Al5O12
Crystal structure cubic
Yb dopant concentration , at.% 10
Lattice constant, Å 12.01
Density, g/cm3 4.56
Mohs hardness 8.5
Thermal expansion coefficient 7.8 x 10-6 x K-1, <111>, 0 - 250 C
Thermal conductivity at 25C, W x cm-1 x K-1 0.14
Loss coefficient at 1064 nm, cm-1 0.003
Refractive index 1.82
Lasing wavelength, nm 1030
Pump wavelength, nm 940
Absorption band about pump wavelength, nm 10
top Cr+4:YAG and PASSIVE Q-SWITCH To Inquiry
Cr+4:Y3Al5O12 or Cr+4:YAG - is a material that can be used as an active media for CW, pulsed or self mode-locked tunable NIR solid-state lasers with the tunability range of 1340 - 1580 nm as well as a media for Q-switching in lasers with operating wavelength at 950 - 1100 nm. It is particularly useful in practical applications because of convenient absorption band of Cr+4around 1 mm which gives possibilities to pump it by regular Nd:YAG lasers. A saturation of absorption in the band at 1060 nm is useful for application in small sized Nd:YAG oscillators with flash lamp or laser diode pumping instead of based on dye or LiF:F-center passive Q-switches. With the usage of Cr+4:YAG crystal the self mode-locking (KML) regime is achievable. It gives an opportunity to build the laser source with pulse duration shorter than 100 fs at 1450 - 1580 nm.
Finally, its high thermal and radiation stability as well as excellent optical and mechanical properties will give you an opportunity to design reliable devices based on the crystal.

MAIN PROPERTIES OF Cr+4:YAG:

Mechanical Properties  
Mohs hardness 8.5
Thermal conductivity, W x K-1 x cm-1 0.12
Termooptical factor (dn/dt) 8.0 x 10-6 x K-1
Spectral Properties  
Operating transition 3A2 - 3T2
Absorption band, nm 900 - 1150
Emission band, nm 1340 - 1580
Dopant level, at/cm3 1017 - 1018
Damage threshold at 1064 nm, 10 ns, MW/cm2 500
Upper-level lifetime at 300K, ms 3.6
Quantum yield at 300K, % 12
Absorption cross section at 1064 nm, cm2 5.0 x 10-18
Emission cross section at 1420 nm, cm2 4.5 x 10-19

APPLICATIONS:
Q-switching of Nd-lasers, range finders, scientific investigations, medical lasers, etc.

FEATURES:

  • High damage threshold
  • High contrast
  • Low losses
  • Wide spectral range
  • Small sizes
  • X-rays unsensitive
  • Wide temperature range (-60 ÷ +60C )
PASSIVE Q-SWITCH
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS:
Wavelength, nm 950 - 1100 nm
Initial transmittance, % 15 - 90
Initial absorption coefficient, cm-1 0.05 - 3
Aperture, mm 5 - 12
Contrast > 8 - 10
Optical length, mm 1 - 40
Damage threshold, J/cm2 > 4
Long-term stability > 15 years
top Er:YSGG To Inquiry
Active elements from Erbium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet crystals ((Y,Er)3Sc2Ga3012 or Er:YSGG) single crystals are desinged for diode pumped solid state lasers radiating in the 3 µm range. Er:YSGG crystals show the perspectiveness of their application alongside with the widely used Er:YAG, Er:GGG and Er:YLF crystals.

PROPERTIES:

Chemical formula Er3+:Y3Sc2Ga3O12
Crystal structure cubic
Er dopant concentration , at.% 30 - 50
Spatial group Oh10
Orientation <001>, <111>
Lattice constant, Å 12.42
Density, g/cm3 5.36
Mohs hardness >7
Refractive index, at 1.064 µm 1.926
Thermal expansion coefficient 8.1 x 10-6 x K-1
Thermal conductivity, W x cm-1 x K-1 0.079
Termooptical factor (dn/dT) 7 x 10-6 x K-1
Generated wavelength, µm 2.797; 2.823

Comparative generation characteristics:
Crystal type Er:YSGG Er:YAG
Er concerntation, at. % 38 33
Pumping wavelength, nm 966 964
Stimulated radiation wavelength, µm 2.797; 2.823 2.830
Generation threshold, mW 72 418
Max. power output    
at pumping power 720 mW, 966 nm 201 51
Slope efficiency, % 31.1 16.9
top Cr,Nd:YSGG, Cr,Er:YSGG, Cr,Ho,Tm:YSGG To Inquiry
Flash lamp pumped solid state lasers based on Cr,Nd and Cr,Er doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet crystals (Cr,Nd:Y3Sc2Ga3012 or Cr,Nd:YSGG and Cr,Er:Y3Sc2Ga3012 or Cr,Er:YSGG) have a higher efficiency than those based on Nd:YAG and Er:YAG.
Active elements manufactured from YSGG crystals are optimum for medium power pulse lasers with the repetition rates up to several tens of cycles. The advantages of YSGG crystals compared with YAG crystals are lost when large size elements are used because of the worse thermal characteristics of YSGG crystals.

Properties and specifications:

Crystal type Cr3+,Nd3+:YSGG Cr3+,Er3+:YSGG
Dopant concentration, at/cm3 Cr: (1 ÷ 2) x 1020
Nd: (2 ÷ 3) x 1020
Cr: (1 ÷ 2) x 1020
Er: 4 x 1021
Spatial group Oh10 Oh10
Lattice constant, Å 12.42 12.42
Density, g/cm3 5.2 5.2
Mohs hardness > 7 > 7
Thermal expansion coefficient 8.1 x 10-6 x K-1 8.1 x 10-6 x K-1
Thermal conductivity, W x cm-1 x K-1 0.06 0.06
Emission cross-section, cm2 1.5 x 10-19 5.2 x 10-21
Lifetime, µs 240 1400
Relative (to YAG) efficiency of transformation of energy of the flash lamp 2.3 1.5


Characteristics and applications of YSGG:

Dopant Cr,Nd Cr,Ho,Tm Cr,Er
Lasing wavelength, µm 1.058 2.088 2.791
Refractive index 1.9263 1.9263 1.9263
Termooptical factor (dn/dT) 12.3 x 10-6 x K-1 12.3 x 10-6 x K-1 12.3 x 10-6 x K-1
Ultimate lasing regimes,
Free running mode
overall efficiency 8% overall efficiency 2.1%
slope efficiency 3.1%
overall efficiency 2.1%
slope efficiency 3.0%
Ultimate lasing regimes,
Electro-optical Q-switch
pulse energy 500 mJ
overall efficiency 4%
-
overall efficiency 0.16%
slope efficiency 0.38%
Sizes, (dia x length), mm from 3 x 30 to 12.7 x 152.4 from 3 x 30 to 9.5 x 101.6 from 3 x 30 to12.7 x 127.0
Fields of applications material processing, scientific investigations material processing, medical applications, lithotripsy material processing, medical applications, scientific investigations
top Nd:YLF To Inquiry
Nd:YLF (Nd:LiYF4) offers an alternative to the more common YAG host for near IR operation. The combination of weak thermal lensing, large fluorescence line width and naturally polarized oscillation makes Nd:YLF an excellent material for CW, modelocked operation. YLF is grown utilizing the modified Czochralsky technique. The as-grown crystals are then processed into laser rods or slabs, coated in house, and inspected per customer specifications.

FEATURES:

  • High power, low beam divergence, efficient single mode operation
  • High average power Q-switched at a moderate repetition rate
  • Linear polarized resonators for Q-switching and frequency doubling
  • Potential uniform mode for large diameter rods or slabs
  • Stimulated emission cross section and lifetime product is favourable for low CW threshold
  • 1053 nm output matches gain curves of Nd:Glass and performs well as an oscillator and pre-amplifier for this host

PROPERTIES:

Crystal symmetry tetragonal
Nd dopant concentration, at.% up to 1.6
Density, g/cm3 3.95
Mohs hardness 4 - 5
Lattice constant, Å a = 5.26, c = 10.94
Refractive index, at 1.053 µm no = 1.448; ne = 1.47
Transmission band, µm 0.1 - 7.5
Thermal conductivity, W x cm-1 x K-1 0.06
Thermooptical factor (dn/dT), at 1.06 µm π = 4.3 x 10-6 x K-1, σ = 2.0 x 10-6 x K-1
Non-linear index n2, esu 0.6 x 10-13
Stimulated emission cross-section, cm2 3.0 x 10-19
Generated wavelength, µm π = 1.047, σ = 1.053
Lifetime, µs 540
Optical losses at 1.053 µm, cm-1 < 0.003
Optical quality < 0.3 x 10-5


STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS:

Rod dimensions, mm dia. (3 - 10) ± 0.1, length (25 - 140) ± 0.2
Rod end face flatness N = 0.5 interf. band, ΔN = 0.5 interf. band
Parallelism of rod end faces, arc.sec 15
End faces perpendicularity, arc.min 5
Barrel finish, µm 1.5
End faces coating AR/AR coating at 1.05 µm
top Er:YLF, Ho:YLF, Tm:YLF To Inquiry
The Er:YLF, Ho:YLF and Tm:YLF single crystal rods are designed to be applied in solid-state lasers which are widely used for industrial, medical and scientific applications. Pure YLF crystals are transparent within the spectrum band of 0.12 - 7.5 µm, photo-, thermo- and radiation-resistant. The YLF crystals have low values of non-linear refraction index and thermooptical constants.

APPLICATIONS:

  • A leading laser (Nd:YLF, wavelength - 1.053 µm) in phosphate glass laser systems
  • Highly sensitive detection/ranging measuring systems (Ho:YLF, wavelength - 0.75 µm and Er:YLF, wavelength - 0.85 µm)
  • Eye-harmless target spotlighting laser system (Er:YLF, wavelength - 1.73 µm)
  • High output power tunable lasers (Ce:YLF, wavelength - 0.29 - 0.32 µm)
  • Complex measuring systems using several operation wavelengths:
    (Er:YLF, wavelength 0.85 and 1.73 µm)
    (Ho:YLF, wavelength 0.75 and 0.98 µm)
    (Tm:YLF, wavelength 2.35 and 1.89 µm)
  • Guidance systems lasers (YLF:Ho, wavelength 3.9 µm)

PROPERTIES:

Crystal symmetry tetragonal
Density, g/cm3 3.95
Mohs hardness 4 - 5
Refractive index no = 1.448; ne = 1.47
Transmission band, µm 0.1 - 7.5
Thermal conductivity, W x cm-1 x K-1 0.06
Thermooptical factor (dn/dT), at 1.06 µm π = 4.3 x 10-6 x K-1, σ = 2.0 x 10-6 x K-1
Non-linear Index n2, esu 0.6 x 10-13

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS:
Rod dimensions, mm dia. (3 - 10) ± 0.1, length (25 - 140) ± 0.2
Rod end face flatness N = 0.5 interf. band, Δ N = 0.5 interf. band
Parallelism of rod end faces, arcsec 15
End faces perpendicularity, arcmin 5
Barrel finish, µm 1.5
End faces coating AR/AR coating
top Doped YVO4 and combined YVO4 /Nd3+:YVO4 To Request Form

Nd doped Yttrium Vanadate (Nd3+:YVO4)
Nd3+:YVO4 is one of the most effective and advanced materials for diode pumped lasers.
Compactly designed Nd3+:YVO4 lasers with green, red and blue light output are really perfect means for material processing, spectroscopy, medical diagnostics, laser printing and other applications.
Compared to Nd3+:YAG and Nd3+:YLF, Nd3+:YVO4 diode pumped lasers have the following advantages:

ADVANTAGES:

  • Wide absorption bandwidth
  • Low lasing threshold
  • High slope efficiency
  • Large luminescent cross-section
  • Linearly polarized emission and single-mode output

MAIN PROPERTIES:

Syngony cubic
Spatial group Fd3m
Lattice constant, Å a = b = 7.12, c= 6.29
Density, g/cm3 4.22
Mohs hardness 8 - 9
Melting point, C 2105
Crystal structure tetragonal
Refractive indices:  
  at 1064 nm no =1.9573; ne =2.1652
  at 808 nm no =1.9721; ne =2.1858
  at 532 nm no =2.0210; ne =2.2560
Thermal expansion coefficient αc = 11.37 x 10-6 x K-1
Thermal conductivity at 25C, W x m-1 x K-1  
  perpendicular to c-axis 5.10
Lasing Wavelengths, nm 914, 1064, 1342

Specifications for Nd3+:YVO4 laser rods:
Nd3+ concentration, at. % 0.1 - 4.0
Configuration of rods cross section round or square
Diameter, mm 1.5 - 25.0
Length, mm 0.5 - 30.0
Diameter tolerance, mm ± 0.1
Length tolerance, mm ± 0.5
Non-parallelism of end faces, arc sec 10
Surface finish, Scratch-Dig 10 - 5
Flatness λ/10
Sizes and dimensions of elements can be varied according to customers demand.

Yttrium Vanadate doped with Er; Yb; Er&Yb (YVO4:Er3+; YVO4:Yb3+; YVO4:Er3+,Yb3+)
YVO4 crystals doped with Er3+ and also with a combination of Er3+, Yb3+ work on wavelenghts of 1.54, 1.61 µm and are used in eyesafe laser applications. In contrast to Er3+, Yb3+ doped phosphate glass, Er3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals can be used in CW mode with high pump energy and high efficiency. Its thermal conductivity is much higher than that of glass and this improves pump characteristics of the laser and relaxes cooling requirements.
Yb3+:YVO4 has a wide absorption bandwidth at 0.98 µm and can generate with high effectivity at 1.02 µm due to low losses of the pump energy.


Specifications for YVO4:Er3+; YVO4:Yb3+
Er3+ concentration, at. % 0.2 - 5.0
Yb3+ concentration, at. % 0.5 - 5.0
Cross section, mm from 2 x 2 to 5 x 10
Length, mm 0.5 - 20
Diameter tolerance, mm ± 0.1
Length tolerance, mm ± 0.1
Non-parallelism of end faces, arc sec 10
Surface finish, Scratch-Dig 10 - 5
Flatness λ/10

Combined Yttrium Vanadate (YVO4 /Nd3+:YVO4)
Yttrium Vanadate (YVO4 /Nd3+:YVO4) crystals combined during growth process are principially different from analoguous composite crystals, produced by bonding undoped and Nd3+ doped YVO4 crystals utilizing thermal diffusion. In case of thermal diffusion at the bonding interface optical losses can be examined, which lead to lower laser efficiency, and at certain laser conditions cracks can appear on this interfaces resulting in damage of the optical element. The offered combined crystals do not have such bonding interfaces and for this reason mentioned problems do not occur. The combined crystals have about 10-15% higher output generation characteristics and a higher damage threshold compared to composite crystals.

Specifications for combined YVO4 /Nd3+:YVO4:
Nd3+ concentration, at. % 0.1 - 2.0
Cross section, mm from 2 x 2 to 5 x 10
Length of undoped part, mm 1 - 5
Length of doped part, mm 1 - 10
Diameter tolerance, mm ± 0.1
Length tolerance, mm ± 0.1
Non-parallelism of end faces, arc sec 10
Surface finish, Scratch-Dig 10 - 5
Flatness λ/10
Sizes and dimensions of elements can be varied according to customers demand.
top TGG To Inquiry
Terbium Gallium Garnet (Tb3Ga5O12 or TGG) is a new crystal material for optical isolator devices. Optical isolator devices make use of the non-reciprocal Faraday effect in TGG. The Faraday effect is the rotation of the plane of polarization of the light beam as it is transmitted through TGG crystal in the presence of an external magnetic field coaxial with the light. The polarization rotation is in the same sense regardless of the direction of the propagation of the light. An optical isolator is a Faraday rotator combined with suitably aligned polarizers which allows light to pass in one direction only.

ADVANTAGES:

  • TGG has twice the Verdet constant of a Terbium-doped Glass
  • The thermal conductivity of crystalline TGG is an order of magnitude greater than a typical Glass
  • Optical losses are lower for TGG than Tb-doped Glasses
The combination of the above factors makes TGG more suitable for high average power applications. The principal limiting factor is thermally induced beam distortion. Beam distortion is less for TGG than for Tb-doped Glasses under the same power loading level.

PROPERTIES:

Crystal structure cubic
Lattice constant, Å 12.347
Thermal conductivity, W x cm-1 x K-1 0.045
Refractive indexes:  
at 1060 nm 1.954
at 600 nm 1.978
Dielectric constant 12.40 ± 0.03
Dielectric loss, tan θ 0.0005
Forward transmission, % >99
Birefrigence, % < 0.01
Insertion loss, cm-1 < 0.01
Extinction ratio, dB >30
Absorption coefficient at 500 - 1200 nm, cm-1 0.0055 - 0.0060
Non-linear coefficient n, esu 8 x 10-13
Verdet constant (V), min x oersted-1 x cm-1  
at 1058 nm 0.1272
at 633 nm 0.46
Figure of Merit (at 633 nm), min/dB 1.5
Pulse damage threshold, MW/cm2 >300
Operation temperature range, C 23 ± 5
Orientation of the rod axis <100> or <111> crystallographic direction (± 15')
top Nd:KGW, Er:KGW To Inquiry
Neodymium doped Potassium-Gadolinium Tungstate crystals (Nd:KGd(WO4)2 or Nd:KGW) are low-threshold high effective laser medium exceptionally suitable for laser rangefinders. Nd:KGW,Er:KGW
The efficiency of such lasers is 3 - 5 times better than that of the Yttrium-Aluminium Garnet (YAG) lasers. At low pumping energies (0.5 to 1.0 J) KGW crystals are one of the few materials ensuing an effective generation. KGW single crystals can also be used for the fabrication of high-efficiency lasers with high output energy. The single crystals exhibit a high optical quality. KGW crystals have great value of the bulk strength for laser radiation.
The technology enables the obtaining of KGW single crystals with the weight of up to 3 kg and fabrication of round active elements with the diameter from 4 to 12 mm and the length from 50 to 120 mm.

ADVANTAGES:

  • Low oscillation threshold : 0.1 - 0.3 J
  • High efficiency beginning from low pumping levels (0.5 - 1.0 J) 3-5 % (3 to 5 times that of Nd:YAG lasers)
  • Polarized radiation (anisotropic oscillation)
  • Minimal laser beam divergence: 5 angular minutes
  • High optical homogenity of the crystals: losses (4 - 5) x 10-4 cm-1
  • Effective Q-modulation (15 mcsec) on Kodak sheets
  • Effective mode synchronization (15 psec) on Kodak sheets.
  • Compact laser elements with a Fresnel diffraction (without an outcoupling mirror)
  • Highly effective lasers on SLAB elements with a diode pumping
  • A highly effective regime for the BKP self-transformation of the radiation creation of multiline lasers; tunable lasers from 400 to 1700 nm)

PROPERTIES of Nd:KGW :

Crystal structure monoclinic
Space group C2h(2/m)
Lattice constant, Å a = 8.10; b = 10.43; c = 7.60
Refractive index, at 1067 nm nq = 2.049; np = 1.978; nm = 2.014
Mohs hardness 5
Density, g/cm3 7.27
Thermal conductivity at 373K, W x cm-1 x K-1 K[100] = 0.026; K[010]= 0.038; K[001] = 0.034
Young's modulus, GPa E[100] = 115.8; E[010]= 152.5; E[001] = 92.4
Termal expansion coefficient, at 373K α[100] = 4 x 10-6 x K-1; α[010]= 1.6 x 10-6 x K-1; α[001]= 8.5 x 10-6 x K-1
Refraction index variation (0.4 - 1) x 10-5

Rods with round cross-sections are manufactured:
Orientation [010] along rod ± 30'
Dopant concentration (at. %) 2 - 10
Diameter tolerance, mm + 0.0 / -0.1
Length tolerance, mm +1.0 / -0.0
Chamfer 45 ± 10 x 0.2 ± 0.1 mm
Parallelism < 30'
Perpendicularity < 15'
Flatness < 0.2
Absorption loss at 1150 nm, cm-1 < 0.005

Erbium doped KGW rods are also available.

top Ti:SAPPHIRE To Inquiry
Titanium doped Sapphire (Ti3+:Al2O3 or Ti:Sapphire) is the most widely used crystal for wavelengths tunable lasers. It combines the excellent thermal, physical and optical properties of Sapphire with the broadest tunable range of any known material. Ti:Sapphire
It can be lased over the entire band from 660 to 1100 nm. Frequency doubling provides tunability over the blue-green region of the visible spectrum.
Ti:Sapphire crystals are active media for highly efficient tunable solid-state lasers. They demonstrate good operation in the pulsed-periodic, quasi-CW and CW modes of operation. Ti:Sapphire is a 4-level, Vibronic laser with fluorescence lifetime of 3.6 µm. The peak of the absorption band is 490 nm which makes it an excellent material for pumping with a variety of sources operating in the green-argon ion, copper vapour, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG, and dye lasers are routinely used. Crystals have also been flashlight pumped by lamps designed to allow short fluorescence lifetime. These factors and broad tunability make it an excellent replacement for several common dye lasing materials. The crystals are grown using Czochralsky and Ciropolous techniques.

MATERIAL PHYSICAL AND LASER PROPERTIES:

Chemical formula Ti3+:Al2O3
Crystal structure hexagonal
Lattice parameters, Å a = 4.748; c = 12.957
Refractive indexes np = 1.759; nm = 1.767
Birefrigence 0.0082
Density, g/cm3 3.98
Mohs hardness 9
Thermal conductivity at 25C, W x cm-1 x K-1  
perpendicular to c-axis 0.35
parallel to c-axis 0.33
Specific heat at 18C, J x kg-1 x K-1 761
Thermal expansion coefficient (20 - 100C)  
perpendicular to c-axis 4.78 x 10-6 x K-1
parallel to c-axis 5.31 x 10-6 x K-1
Syngony triangular
Axial characteristic uniaxial

Rods with round cross-sections are manufactured:
Tuning range, nm 680 - 1100
Pumping range, nm 450 - 532
Ti dopant concentration, at.% 0.02 ÷ 0.35
Absorption coefficient at 510 nm, cm-1 0.5 ÷ 2.5
FOM >200
Orientation 90 to c axis
Geometry flat-flat / Brewster
Endsunparallelity 10"
Flatness 0.2
Orientation tolerance < 5
Broadband AR coatings, % < 0.2
Diameter, mm (3 ÷ 40) ± 0.1
Length, mm (10 ÷ 140) ± 0.5
Other sizes as well as geometry of crystals are available.
top ALEXANDRITE To Inquiry
Chrysoberyl (BeAl2O4) modification - Alexandrite (Cr3+:BeAl2O4) is a particularly attractive precious gem. It is also a uniquely versatile solid-state laser material. It has the distinction of being the first solid-state laser medium capable of tunable operation at room temperature.
Alexandrite lasers are vibronic lasers; that is, phonons, as well as photons, are emitted during lasing. The wavelength tuning is accomplished by controlling the branching of energy between phonons and photons during lasing . Alexandrite lasers have been tuned across most of the spectrum between 701 and 860 nm. The central part of the tuning range is from 720 - 800 nm. Using non-linear wavelength conversion processes such as harmonic generation and raman shifting, light has been generated at wavelengths from the deep IR (20 µm) to the VUV.
In addition, to its broad absorption bands throughout the visible spectrum, alexandrite exhibits narrow R line absorption features at wavelengths near 680 nm. These properties together with its long fluorescence lifetime make it an excellent material for both flashlamp and diode pumping. Alexandrite's thermo-mechanical properties make it an excellent performer in high power laser applications
.
Alexandrite
MATERIAL PROPERTIES:
Operation in pulsed and CW modes at wavelengths, nm 700 - 820
Syngony rhombic
Spatial group Pnma (D2h16)
Lattice space parameters, Å: a = 5.47; b = 9.39; c = 4.42
Mohs hardness 8.5
Density, g/cm3 3.79
Refractive indexes ng = 1.753; nm = 1.747; np = 1.744
Axial characteristic biaxial
Thermal conductivity, W x cm-1 x K-1 0.23
Stimulated emission cross-section at 300K, cm2 3.0 x 10-19
Lifetime, sec 260 x 10-6
Absorption loss at 750 nm, cm-1 0.001 - 0.003
Generation boundaries depending on Cr+3 concentration, J 15 - 30
Operation boundaries depending on operation in pulsed and CW mode at wavelengths, µm: 0.70 - 0.82
Rods with round cross-sections are manufactured
Cr dopant concentration, at.% 0.03 ÷ 0.50
Diameter, mm (4 ÷ 10) ± 0.1
Length, mm (60 ÷ 110) ± 0.6
Ends unparallelity 10´´
Surface quality, scratch/dig 10 - 5
Flatness λ/10
Orientation tolerance < 5
Orientation 001
top Cr:FORSTERITE To Inquiry
Cr:Forsterite (Cr:Mg2SiO4) crystal is a new tunable laser material that fills the spectral void in the near-IR region. The tuning range covers the important spectral range from 1130 to 1348 nm, which provides a minimal dispersion in optical fibers. The Cr:Forsterite laser eventually explores its niche applications for semiconductor characterisation, eye-safe ranging, medical, industrial and scientific research. Both pulsed and continuous-wave (CW) laser operations have been obtained when pumped with 532, 578, 629 and 1064 nm.
We provide Cr:Forsterite crystals with the dimensions up to 120 mm in length and up to 30 mm in diameter. AR-coatings can be provided to meet your specific requirements.

PHYSICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES:

Cr dopant concentration, at.% 0.05 ÷ 0.50
Syngony rhombic
Lattice space parameters, Å a = 4.77; b = 10.28; c = 6.00
Refractive indexes ng = 1.670; nm = 1.651; np = 1.635
Density, g/cm3 3.217
Mohs hardness 7
Axial characteristic biaxial
Thermal expansion coefficient 9.5 x 10-6 x K-1
Thermal conductivity, W x cm-1 x K-1 0.08
Stimulated emission cross section, cm-2 1.44 x 10-19
Relaxation time of terminal lasing level, ps < 10
Radiative lifetime, µs 25
Spontaneous fluorescence, µs 2.7
Absorption loss at 1230 nm, cm-1 0.007 - 0.060
Absorption coefficient at 1064 nm, cm-1 0.7 - 3.0

SPECTROSCOPIC AND LASER PROPERTIES:
Major pumping bands, nm 850 - 1200; 600 - 850; 350 - 550
Fluorescence band, nm 680 - 1400
Fluorescence lifetime at 25C, µs < 3
Lasing wavelength (center) 1235 nm (pulsed), 1244 nm (CW)
Spectral bandwidth 30 nm (pulsed), 12 nm (CW)
Typical slope efficiency 23% (pulsed), 38% (CW)
Tuning range, nm 1130 - 1348
Gain cross section, cm2 < 1.45 x 10-19
top LASER GLASSES To Inquiry
We offer the following Laser Glasses:

Concentrated Nd phosphate Glasses with lowered concentration luminescence quenching. Lasing wavelengths - 1.05 and 1.35 µm:

Nd ions concentration range, cm-3 from 4 x 1020 to 27 x 1020
Nd radiational lifetime, µs 330
Nd lifetime at 10 x 1020 cm-3 concentration, µs 190
Nd lifetime at 27 x 1020 cm-3 concentration, µs 80
Lasing cross-section at 1.054 µm, cm2 3.8 x 10-20
Density, g/cm3 2.85
Refractive index 1.55
Thermal expansion coefficient 8.0 x 10-6 x K-1

Availability - rods (or other according to customer's demands) up to 120 - 150 mm long. Ends AR-coating is provided.

Erbium-activated phosphate laser Glasses. Lasing wavelength - 1.54 µm

-Glasses for flashlamp pumping:

  • Chromium-Ytterbium-Erbium activated Glasses are designed for maximal efficiency (up to 2.5 - 3.0 % in free running) under Xe flash lamp pumping in the regime of rare pulses.
  • Neodymium-Ytterbium-Erbium activated laser Glasses are designed for efficient (up to 2.0 - 2.5 %) flashlamp pumped operation in case of repetitive pulses. Heat dissipation in them is lower than that in Chromium-containing Glasses and they exhibit no temperature decrease of lasing parameters.
Availability - rods according to customer's demands up to 120 mm long and up to 10 mm in diameter. Ends AR-coating is provided.

-Concentrated Ytterbium-Erbium phosphate laser Glasses for laser diode pumped operation.

These Glasses have extremely high (4 x 1021 cm-3) Ytterbium ions content resulting in high absorption coefficient of InGaAs Laser diode radiation (up to 35 cm-1 at the peak at 975 nm). Erbium content can be varied depending on the customers demands (typically (3 - 5) x 1019 cm-3 for side pumping and (1.5 - 2) x 1020 cm-3 for microchip lasers).

Availability - rods or plates according to customer's demands with appropriate antireflection or reflective coatings.